Clear Mountain Garden Treasures
 

Clear Mountain Garden TreasuresGlossary of Terms

Orchids
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseCattleya
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseCoelogyne
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseDendrobium
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseMasdevallia
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseNative Orchids
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseOncidium
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseTerestrials
Expand/CollapseExpand/CollapseOther Genera
Glossary

Glossary

Latin Names

Term Description
Aphid A soft-bodied sap sucking insect that reproduces rapidly.
Axil The junction between a leaf and the stem. Both vegetative and flower buds are usually found in leaf axils.
Bract A modified leaf associated with flowers, fruits and cones. Bracts usually protect buds or are modified to look like petals.
Bulb An underground shoot with thickened leaf bases see also Bulbs, Corms and Tubers.
Colder areas Areas with cooler winters, typically south of the Bay of Plenty.
Column A structure on an orchid flower that has both the stigma and stamen.
Community Pot A pot or other container that is used to grown lots of mainly small plants.
Complex Hybrid A hybrid where one or both parents are themselves hybrids.
Corm A short swollen underground stem see also Bulbs, Corms and Tubers.
Crown A part of a plant where leaves and sometimes roots grow from.
Deciduous Shedding of leaves at the end of the growing season see also Plant Life Cycle.
Dimorphic Usually but not necessarily used in the context of sexual dimorphism, meaning the male and female looks very different. Dimorphic organisms have two (or more) forms that are physically different.
Epiphyte A plant that grows on another, but does not obtain nutrients from its host.
Equitant Having two ranks of leaves overlapping at the base, looking like a fan.
Evergreen In leaf all throughout the year. Leaves may persist for many years.
Eye A bud on a tuber or crown that grows following season.
Fungicide A chemical or biological agent that kills or controls fungus infections.
Genus In botanical taxonomy, a genus is a group of closely related plant species. A genus may contain one or more plant species.
Herbaceous A soft and green part of a plant that does not become woody.
Hybrid A hybrid is the progeny of two or more species.
Inflorescence A flowering shoot with more than one flower. Inflorescences may be branched or unbranched.
Infructescence The fruiting stage of an inflorescence. An ensemble of fruits growing on a stem.
Keikei An plantlet that grows from the stem or canes of orchids. Keikei is Hawaiian for baby.
Labellum A highly modified petal that functions to aid the pollination of orchid flowers. Often called the "Lip", the labellum gives orchid flowers the lop-sided look.
Leaf Sheath The lower part of a leaf that encircles and protects a stem, usually tubular in shape.
Lithophyte A plant that grows on rocks or stony soils.
Mildew A white or greyish powdery parasitic mould that grows on the surface of leaves and stems.
Monoecious A plant that grows both male and female unisexual flowers or other reproductive parts on the same plant.
Monopodial Orchids that grow indefinitely from a terminal bud.
Monsoon A seasonal wind in tropical areas that usually brings a lot rain.
Natural Hybrid A naturally occurring hybrid with a stable population in the wild.
Panicle A compound raceme, much branched, with flowers and fruit attached along secondary branches.
Pappus Modified calyx or sepal of a daisy flower, that may be too small to see or may be modified to be scales, feathery bristles or seed parachute.
Parasite A plant (or animal) that lives on or inside its host, and obtains nutrients from its host.
Peduncle A stem that supports an inflorescence.
Phylloclade Flattened stems that take over the function of photosynthesis from leaves, eg. in cactus.
Pneumathodes Patches on orchid roots that remain dry, allowing the root to breathe.
Pollinia Bundles of pollen grains held together in a waxy mass, typically found on orchids.
Primary Hybrid A hybrid where both parents are straight species, in contrast to a complex hybrid where one or both parents are themselves hybrids.
Procumbent Laying stems across the ground but not normally rooting.
Pseudobulb A swollen stem found mainly in orchids see also Bulbs, Corms and Tubers.
Pumice An extremely porous glassy volcanic rock, crushed and added to soils and potting mixes to improve drainage but still able to retain water.
Raceme An unbranched flowering shoot with more than one flower. A spike is raceme where the flowers grow without a pedicel.
Radicans Spreading stems across the ground and rooting from its stem.
Resupinate Flowers, in particular orchids, the rotate 180° before opening.
Rhizome A usually horizontal stem (sometimes underground) that grows new roots and shoots along its length see also Bulbs, Corms and Tubers.
Secund Leaves or flowers that all face one direction, on one side of the stem.
Sequential Flowering Flowering pattern whereby flowers are continuosly produced to replace old ones that have faded, as opposed to having flowers open all at once.
Slow release Granulised fertiliser enclosed by a shell that slowly releases the food over a long period of time.
Spadix The (often fleshy) spike inflorescence of aroids that carry the flowers see also Aroids.
Spathe The bract that grows from a aroid's spadix. Spathes are often modified to act as petals, trumpts and elaborate traps see also Aroids.
Stamen Part of a flower that produces pollen.
Stamen Part of a flower that produces pollen.
Stigma Part of a flower that receives pollen.
Stolon A horizontal branch or running stem that gives rise to new plants.
Stomata Holes on leaves that allow them to breathe. A pair of guard cells open and close each stoma when necessary.
Style A tube that joins the stigma to the ovaries.
Tendril A thin specialised stem, petiole or leaf that supports climbing vines by winding around anything it touches.
Terete Circular in cross section, smooth surfaced, and usually tapering at both ends.
Terrestrial A plant that grows on the ground, like most plants do.
Terrestrial Grows on or in the ground.
Trifoliate A leaf comprising of three leaflets, for example, a clover leaf.
Tuber A swollen underground stem, crown or root see also Bulbs, Corms and Tubers.
Umbel A shoot where all the flower stems (pedicel) are the same length and grow from one point, arranging the flowers in an umbrella shape.
Velamen A spongy layer of dead cells that cover a number of epiphytic plants, such as orchids. It acts to absorb fleeting water and atmospheric moisture and when dry stops the roots from losing water.
Viability The proportion of seeds that are able to germinate.
Warmer areas Areas with warmer winters, typically north of the Bay of Plenty, inclusive.

 Culture Icons

Icon Description
Full Sun
Full
Sun
Full Sun
Grow in full sun or a spot that gets at least 6 hours of full sun.
Part shade
Part
shade
Part shade
Grow in part shade, dappled shade is best. Early morning full sun is alright.
Shady
Shady
Shady
Grow somewhere bright but shady, such as under a tree or on the south side of the house. Avoid exposure to full sun.
Water well in Summer
Water /
Summer
Water well in Summer
Provide lots of water if the summer has been dry but make sure the plant is not flooded.
Plenty of water during the growing season
Water /
growing
Plenty of water during the growing season
Provide lots of water during the growing season (which could be winter if appropriate for the plant) if there has been insufficient rain. Make sure the plant is not flooded.
Moderate water
Moderate
water
Moderate water
Provide extra irrigation only if the ground is dry during the growing season.
Water well until established
Water /
Est.
Water well until established
Water well for the plant to establish itself, thereafter there is no need to water. For drought tolerant annuals, this might be for a month, for trees, this might be for a couple of years.
Drought resistant / Coastal
Coastal
Tolerant
Drought resistant / Coastal
Drought resistant plant and tolerant of coastal conditions and salt spray.
Drought resistant
Drought
Tolerant
Drought resistant
Drought resistant - the plant can go for extended periods without water.
Hardy
Hardy
Hardy
Fully hardy in all coastal areas of New Zealand. Will need some protection in highland areas or in Central Otago.
Half hardy
Half
hardy
Half hardy
Can tolerate only light frosts and will cope well in warmer areas. If grown in colder areas, the lant will need to be protected from heavy frosts.
Tender
Tender
Tender
Keep away from frosts. Exposure to frost may damage or kill the plant.
Warm temperatures
Warm
Warm temperatures
The plant should be grown in warm temperatures, minimum minimum 18°C. Best to grow in a heated greenhouse, heated conservatory or indoors. Plant is heat tolerant.
Intermediate temperatures.
Intermediate
Intermediate temperatures.
Grow the plant in intermediate temperatures, minimum 9°C. Can be grown outdoors in the summer but best kept in an unheated greenhouse or conservatory.
Cool temperatures
Cool
Cool temperatures
The plant requires cool temperatures but keep above freezing. Can be grown outdoors in warmer areas and sheltered from frosts or kept in an unheated greenhouse in cool areas. May require cool temperatures to initiate flowering.
Annual
Annual
Annual
Grows only for one season. The plant grows from seed, flowers then seeds in less than a year.
Sometimes treated as an annual
Sometimes
Annual
Sometimes treated as an annual
Usually a perennial that requires warm conditions, but grown as an annual. Seeds are started in the spring, the plant grows through the summer and is killed by the cold in the winter.
Biennial
Biennial
Biennial
Grows for two seasons. The plant grows in the first season, then flowers and sets seeds in the next season.
Sometimes treated as a biennial
Sometimes
Biennial
Sometimes treated as a biennial
Usually a short lived perennial, that is grown like a biennial, then discarded after flowering or fruiting is finished.
Perennial
Perennial
Perennial
Grows for many years, certain perennials such as Cyclamen, can be very long lived.
Deciduous perennial
Deciduous
Perennial
Deciduous perennial
Grows for several years. Copes with cold or dryness by losing its leaves. It copes by storing water and food usually in an underground organ.
Short lived perennial
Short lived
Perennial
Short lived perennial
Grows only for a few years; the plant dies after it exhausts itself out. The life of short lived perennials can sometimes prolonged by severe prunning or starting again from cuttings.
Short lived perennial in warmer areas
Warm
Perennial
Short lived perennial in warmer areas
Grows only for a few years but requires warm growing conditions. Often grown as annuals in colder areas.
Shrub
Shrub
Shrub
Woody perennial that usually grow from several small trunks. Does not grow very tall.
Large shrub
Large
shrub
Large shrub
Shrubs that can grow over 1.8m tall.
Small shrub
Small
shrub
Small shrub
Shrubs under 1.8m.
Tree
Tree
Tree
Woody perennial that usually gror from one trunk. Can grow quite tall.
Small tree
Small
tree
Small tree
Trees under 4m tall.
Connifer tree
Connifer
Connifer tree
Trees that belong to the connifer family and have the typical pine pyramid shape.
Palm tree
Palm
Palm tree
Palms, tree ferns and cycads that grow tall like a tree.
Bog plant
Bog
plant
Bog plant
Plants that are adapted to grow in water logged soils. Do not allow the soil to dry out completely.
NZ Native
NZ Native
The plant originates in New Zealand and may even be endemic (ie. found nowhere else).


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